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13. Reported speech: person, place and time

FORM 8

1 Introduction



It's Friday afternoon. David is at Tom's flat. Tom has

decided to have a party for all his friends.



A few minutes later Nick has arrived at the flat. Now
David is reporting what Tom said. So instead of
Tom's words
I'm having, David says he's having.


The next day David is talking to Harriet. Now David
is in a different place from where Tom first told him
about the party. So instead of
here, he says at his
flat.
And a day has passed since he first heard about
it. It is now the day of the party. So instead of
tomorrow evening, David says this evening.

2 Changes in reported speech

Changes from direct speech to reported speech depend on changes in the situation.
We may have to make changes when we are reporting something another person has said,
or when we report it in a different place or at a different time. Here are some typical changes.

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