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22. Adjective or adverb 2


1 Friendly, likely, etc.

The ending -ly is the normal adverb ending. But a few adjectives also end in -ly.
Melanie was very friendly.
It was a lively party.
We had a lovely time.

Some more examples are: elderly, likely, lonely, silly, ugly

The words are adjectives, not adverbs (NOT She spoke to us friendly). And we cannot add -ly.
There is no such word as friendlily. But we can say in a friendly way/manner.
She spoke to us in a friendly way.
If we need to use an adverb, we often choose another word of similar meaning.
It was lovely. Everything went beautifully.

2 Hard, fast, etc.

Compare these sentences.


We did some hard work.
I came on the fast train.


We worked hard.
The train went quite fast.

We can use these words both as adjectives and as adverbs:
deep, early, fast, hard, high, late, long, low, near, right, straight, wrong

In informal English, the adjectives cheap, loud, quick and slow can be adverbs.


They sell cheap clothes in the market.
Back already! That was quick.


They sell things cheap/cheaply there.
Come as quick/quickly as you can.

3 Hard, hardly, near, nearly, etc.

There are some pairs of adverbs like hard and hardly which have different meanings.
Here are some examples.
I tried hard, but I didn't succeed.
I've got hardly any money left. (hardly any = very little, almost none)
Luckily I found a phone box quite near.
nearly fell asleep in the meeting. (nearly = almost)
Rachel arrived late, as usual.
I've been very busy
lately. (lately = in the last few days/weeks)
The plane flew high above the clouds.
The material is
highly radioactive. (highly = very)
We got into the concert free. (free = without paying)
The animals are allowed to wander freely. (freely = uncontrolled)

4 Good and well

Good is an adjective, and well is its adverb. The opposites are bad and badly.


Natasha is a good violinist.
Our test results were good.
I had a bad night.


She plays the violin very well.
We all did well in the test.
I slept badly last night.

Well can also be an adjective meaning 'in good health', the opposite of ill.
My mother was very ill, but she's quite well again now.
How are you? - Very well, thank you.

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