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1. Past Perfect

FORM 8

1 Introduction

IN THE CANTEEN AT WORK, MARK IS TELLING A
COLLEAGUE ABOUT THE DREADFUL DAY HE HAD
YESTERDAY.

I felt really tired when. I took the train to work
yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party
the evening before. We hadn't gone to bed until
after one. I hadn't been on the train long when I
had a bit of a shock. I suddenly realized that I'd left
my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I
left it in the office the day before? I just couldn't
remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

The situation is in the past (l took the train ...
I felt tired ... ). When we talk about things before
this past time, we use the Past Perfect.
Sarah and I had been to a party the evening
before.
I'd left my wallet at home.
We are looking back from the situation of the
train journey to the earlier actions - going to a
party and leaving home without the wallet.

Here are some more examples of the Past Perfect.
It was twenty to six. Most of the shops had just closed.
I went to tile box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold all the tickets.
By 1960 most of Britain's old colonies had become independent.

As well as actions, we can use the Past Perfect to talk. about states.
I felt better by the summer, but the doctor warned me not to do too much. I'd been very ill.
The news came as no surprise to me. I'd known for some time that the factory was likely to close.

2 Form

The Past Perfect is had + a past participle.
He had enjoyed the party. OR He'd enjoyed the party.
They hadn't gone to bed until late.
Where had he put his wallet?

3 Present Perfect and Past Perfect

Compare these examples.

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