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18. Review of linking words


1 Time words

Look at these examples with when, while, as soon as, etc.
My leg hurts when I walk. (= at the time I walk)
Mark heard the news on the radio as/while he was driving home. (= during the time he was driving)
We're going to tidy up after everyone's gone. (= later than everyone goes)
As soon as Laura had left the house, it started to rain. (= immediately after she had left)
I must get to the post office before it closes. (= earlier than it closes)
You have to wait until the light changes to green. (= up to the time it changes)
David hasn't been able to work since he broke his leg. (= from the time he broke his leg)
Remember that we use the Present Simple for future time after when, etc.
We say before it closes, until it changes, etc.

2 If, unless and in case

We use these words to express a condition.
Rachel might buy a car if she passes her test. (She may or may not pass her test.)
You won't learn to use a keyboard properly unless you practise. (= if you don't practise)
We'd better start early in case there are traffic hold-ups. (= because there may be hold-ups)

3 But, although and in spite of

We use these words to express the idea of a contrast.
The jacket was nice, but it was too small for me.
Although the forecast said it would rain, it turned out to be a beautiful day.
We still haven't got a sponsor in spite of writing/in spite of the fact that we've written to dozens of companies.

4 Reason

Here are some ways of expressing reason.
I took a taxi because I had some luggage.
Since we've got some time, let's look around the museum.
As there was no evidence against him, the man was released.
We hurried on,
for it was getting late.
For is rather literary.

We can also use these prepositions.
The match has been cancelled because of the weather.
TI1e shop was closed due to illness.
Owing to its remote situation, the village has 110 electricity supply.
In view of the test results, we expect the drug to be approved.

5 Because and so

We use because to express the reason for something and so to express the result of something.
I turned the heating on because it was cold.
Henry started jogging
because his doctor told him to.
It was cold, so I tumed the heating on.
The stereo didn't work,
so Vicky took it back to the shop.

6 To, in order to and so that

We use these words to express purpose.
Sarah went to Birmingham to meet a client.
We're having to borrow money in order to pay our bills.
I took the bread out of the freezer so that it would defrost.

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