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16. So/neither do I and I think so


1 So and neither

Vicky: I'm hungry.
Rachel: So am I. I haven't eaten anything all day.
Daniel: Neither have I. I didn't have time for breakfast.

We use so after a positive statement and neither after a negative one.
I'm hungry. - So am I. (= And I'm hungry./I'm hungry, too.)
I haven't eaten. - Neither have I. (= And I haven't eaten./I haven't eaten either.)

The structure is so/neither + an auxiliary + the subject.
The auxiliary is a form of be or have or a modal verb, e.g. can.
We're really busy at work. - So are we.
Tom has gone to the match. - And so has Nick.
David can't drive, and neither can Melanie.
The subject comes at the end. NOT We're busy. - So we are.
In the Present Simple and Past Simple we use a form of do.
I love old cowboy films. - So do I.
This phone doesn't work. - Neither does this one.
United won, and so did Rangers.

We can use nor instead of neither.
Emma isn't here tonight. Neither/Nor is Matthew.

2 I think so, etc.

Vicky: It's 'Round the Corner' at half past seven, my favourite soap opera. Are we going to be back in time?
Daniel: I think so. We haven't got far to go now.
Rachel: We might miss the beginning.
Vicky: Oh, I hope not. I want to know if Bernard really did steal the money.

Here I think so means 'I think we'll be back in time', and I hope not means 'I hope we don't miss the beginning'.

We can use so after be afraid, believe, expect, guess, hope, suppose and think.
Do you think you'll get the job? - Well, I hope so.
Are you going on hliday this year? - Yes, I expect so.
I don't know for sure if Henry is rich, but I should think so.
But we cannot use so after know or be sure.
There's been an accident. - Yes, I know. NOT I know so.
Are you sure you're doing the right thing? - Yes, I'm sure. NOT I'm sure so.

There are two negative structures.


Is it raining? - I don't think so.
Are you going to the concert? - I don't expect so.
With expect and think, we normally use the
negative and so.


Is it raining? - I hope not.
Have we won a prize? - I'm afraid not.
With be afraid, guess and hope, we use the
positive and not.

We can use believe and suppose in either structure.
Will there be any seats left? - I don't suppose so. OR I suppose not.

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