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13. Present Perfect 2

FORM 7

just, already, yet; for and since

1 Just, already and yet

We can use the Present Perfect with just, already
and yet.

Just means 'a short time ago'. Vicky heard about
the concert not long ago. Already means 'sooner
than expected'. They sold the tickets very
quickly. We use yet when we are expecting
something to happen. Vicky expects that Rachel
will buy a ticket.

Just and already come before the past participle
(heard, sold). Yet comes at the end of a question
or a negative sentence.

Here are some more examples.
We've just come back from our holiday.
I've just had an idea.
It isn't a very good party. Most people have
already gone home.
My brother has already crashed his new car.
It's eleven o'clock and you haven't finished
breakfast yet.
Has your course started yet?

VICKY SEES RACHEL OUTSIDE THE CONCERT HALL.

2 For and since

We can use the Present Perfect with for and since.

Vicky has only had that camera for three days.
Those people have been at the hotel since Friday.
I've felt really tired for a whole week now.
We've lived in Oxford since 1992. NOT We live here here since 1992.
Here something began in the past and has lasted up to the present time.

We use for to say how long this period is (for three days). We use since to say when the period began (since Friday).

We use how long in questions.
How long has Vicky had that camera? - Since Thursday, I think.
How long have Trevor and Laura been married? - Oh, for about three years.

We can also use the Present Perfect with for and since when something has stopped happening.
I haven't seen Rachel for ages.
She hasn't visited us since July.

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